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Gene editing in space.

Researchers from the Genes in Space program have developed and successfully demonstrated a novel method for studying how cells repair damaged DNA in space. They used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to create controlled damage to DNA strands, before observing the self-repair mechanisms in detail.

Their methods are described in PLOS ONE: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253403
#sciencenews #biology #genetics
How Covid-19 affects the blood.

Researchers at the Max-Planck-Zentrum für Physik und Medizin showed that Covid-19 significantly changes the size and stiffness of red and white blood cells over periods of months. These results could explain why some people continue to experience symptoms long after the infection.

Their work is published in the Biophysical Journal: https://www.cell.com/biophysj/fulltext/S0006-3495(21)00454-9

#sciencenews #medicine #immunology
Nanomaterials in the brain.
A University of Birmingham team have found that metal-based nanomaterials can cross an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier as both particles and dissolved ions. The physiochemical properties of the nanomaterials influence their penetration efficiency.
The research is reported in PNAS: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/18/e2021915118
#sciencenews #biology
Replacing endoscopy.

A study from the University of Houston reports a step forward in diagnosing intestinal diseases, including colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease using stool proteins. The non-invasive test could lead to the replacement of endoscopy as the diagnostic tool of choice.

The study is published in Nature Communications: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-24235-0
#sciencenews #medicine
Life on Enceladus?

A new study published in Nature Astronomy by scientists at the @University of Arizona suggests an unknown methane-producing process is likely at work in the hidden ocean beneath the icy shell of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The unexpected presence of methane could be a sign of life in the depths of the moon.

The paper is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41550-021-01372-6
#sciencenews #astronomy
Breaking down carbon dioxide.

A two-dimensional, five-metal alloy developed at Washington University has been shown to be an excellent catalyst for the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. The material could be used to help combat the rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The work has recently been published in Advanced Materials: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100347
#sciencenews #chemistry
Sheer Perfection.

A research team at UC Berkeley has developed a nanoparticle composite that grows into 3D crystals. The 3D polymer-grafted nanoparticles could lead to new technologies that are 3D-grown rather than 3D-printed.

Their work has been published in Nature Communications: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22950-2
#sciencenews #nanomaterials
Artificial photosynthesis.

University of Nagoya scientists have investigated the effects of doping on surface recombination in strontium titanate to enable the design of efficient catalysts for artificial photosynthetic processes. Photocatalysts with lower surface recombination could help to develop efficient energy sources.

The results can be found in the Journal of Physics D: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/ac073e

#sciencenews #energy
Advanced brain imaging.

University of Chicago team have developed an advanced X-ray brain imaging method to bridge the gap between MRI and electron microscopy. They imaged an entire mouse brain across five orders of magnitude of length scales, allowing analysis to bridge from the micro to the macro level.

Their insights are published in NeuroImage: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811921005279?via%3Dihub

#sciencenews #imaging
Kidney treatments.

Medics in Indiana University School of Medicine have investigated alternative ways to treat kidney infections, knowing that antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem. They examined methods to trigger the kidneys’ own internal processes to fight the infections.

Their findings are published in the Nature Communications: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22672-5
#sciencenews #medicine
Stretching graphene.

A team of researchers at the Universität Basel have demonstrated the controllable modification of the electronic properties of graphene during stretching processes. The results could lead to the design of new electronic components using the wonder material.

The mechanisms are explained in Communications Physics: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42005-021-00651-y
#sciencenews #graphene #physics
Beetle microstructures.

The interplay between mechanical and optical performance in beetle exoskeletons has been probed by researchers at Virginia Tech. They discovered that the structures providing mechanical support are also contributors to the optical properties such as colour.

Their results can be viewed in PNAS: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/25/e2101017118
#sciencenew #physics
Two-photon gates.

Researchers at University of Washington have developed a deterministic, high-fidelity two-bit quantum logic gate that takes advantage of a new form of light. This new logic gate is orders of magnitude more efficient than the current technology.

Their advance is recorded in Physical Review A: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.103.052610
#sciencenews #physics
Seabirds depleting fish.

University of Exeter research shows that the seabird colony on Ascension Island creates a halo in which fewer fish are found. Reduced numbers of flying fish were found up to 90 miles from the island. The study provides insights into how large colonies of animals are naturally limited in number.

Their insights can be read in PNAS: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101325118
#sciencenews #biology
Shrinking dinosaurs.

Paleontologists at the University of Bristol have explained how changes in the diet of dinosaurs lead to a rapid shrinking of their sizes. The dietary changes were likely caused by a changing environment and competitive pressure for resources.

Their theories are described in Current Bbiology: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960982221008083

#sciencenews #biology
A new quasiparticle.

National University of Science and Technology MISIS scientists have experimentally shown the existence of a new type of quasiparticle, formed of the excitations of coupled photon pairs in qubit chains. Their discovery confirms previous theoretical predictions.

Their results are described in Physical Review B: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.103.224520
#sciencenews #physics
Artificial organelles.

Organelles are components of cells that individually perform complex biochemical reactions. Researchers at the 기초과학연구원(IBS, Institute for Basic Science) have constructed artificial organelles that could supply ATP or other useful molecules to damaged or diseased tissue cells.

The work is reported in Nature Catalysis: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41929-021-00669-z
#sciencenews #biology
Molecular mechanisms in brain diseases.

Regulation of cellular proteins is crucial for maintaining a healthy brain. Rutgers University scientists have developed insights into how toxic proteins are regulated in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which could help to design effective treatments in future.

The report has been published in PNAS: https://www.pnas.org/content/118/36/e2101410118/tab-article-info
#sciencenews #neuroscience #molecularbiology #biology
Sparkling cluster galaxy.

The Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys have been used to capture an image of the NGC 6717 galaxy. Located 20,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius, NGC 6717 is a spherical grouping of stars held together by gravity.

The image can be seen at: https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/goddard/2021/hubble-captures-a-sparkling-cluster
#sciencenews #astronomy